
Static Timing analysis is divided into several parts:
 Part1 > Timing Paths
 Part2 > Time Borrowing
 Part3a > Basic Concept Of Setup and Hold
 Part3b > Basic Concept of Setup and Hold Violation
 Part3c > Practical Examples for Setup and Hold Time / Violation
 Part4a > Delay  Timing Path Delay
 Part4b > Delay  Interconnect Delay Models
 Part4c > Delay  Wire Load Model
 Part5a > Maximum Clock Frequency
 Part5b > Examples to calculate the “Maximum Clock Frequency” for different circuits.
 Part 6a > How to solve Setup and Hold Violation (basic example)
 Part 6b > Continue of How to solve Setup and Hold Violation (Advance examples)
 Part 6c > Continue of How to solve Setup and Hold Violation (more advance examples)
 Part 7a > Methods for Increase/Decrease the Delay of Circuit (Effect of Wire Length On the Slew)
 Part 7b > Methods for Increase/Decrease the Delay of Circuit (Effect of Size of the Transistor On the Slew)
 Part 7c > Methods for Increase/Decrease the Delay of Circuit (Effect of Threshold voltage On the Slew)
 Part 8 > 10 ways to fix Setup and Hold Violation.
Now the question is: What is Wire Load Models (WLM).
Wire loading models
 Used to estimate the interconnect wire delay during prelayout in a design cycle.
 Wire load information is based on statistics from physical layout parasitic
 Information from the statistics is used in both conservative and aggressive tables.
 The conservative tables are based on “mean value” plus 3sigma; the aggressive tables on “mean value” plus 1sigma.
 Different for different technology.
 Wire load models are approximated from one technology to another based on scaling factors. Due to these approximations, the accuracy of these models diminish over multiple technology nodes
 Describes effect of wire length and fanout on
 Resistance
 Capacitance
 Area of the nets.
 All attributes (R, C and Area) are given per unit length wire.
 Slope value is used to characterize linear fanout.
 Basically a set of tables
 Net fanout vs load
 Net fanout vs resistance
 Net fanout vs area
One example of such type of table is:
Net Fanout  Resistance KΩ  Capacitance pF 
1  0.00498  0.00312 
2  0.01295  0.00812 
3  0.02092  0.01312 
4  0.02888  0.01811 
As per this
The following are few snapshot of the different format of wire load model.
wire_load("WLM1") {
resistance : 0.0006 ;>R per unit length
capacitance : 0.0001 ;> C per unit length
area : 0.1 ;> Area per unit length
slope : 1.5 ;> Used for linear extrapolation
fanout_length(1, 0.002) ; > at fanout “1” length of the wire is 0.002
fanout_length(2, 0.006);
fanout_length(3, 0.009);
fanout_length(4, 0.015);
fanout_length(5, 0.020);
fanout_length(7, 0.028); > at fanout “7” length of the wire is 0.028
fanout_length(8, 0.030);
fanout_length(9, 0.035);
fanout_length(10, 0.040);
}
wire_load("WLM2") {
fanout_length( 1, 1 );
fanout_length( 2, 2 );
fanout_capacitance( 1, 0.002 );
fanout_capacitance( 2, 0.004 );
fanout_capacitance( 3, 0.006 );
fanout_capacitance( 4, 0.008 );
fanout_capacitance( 5, 0.010 );
fanout_capacitance( 6, 0.013 );
fanout_capacitance( 7, 0.015 );
fanout_capacitance( 8, 0.019 );
fanout_capacitance( 9, 0.023 );
fanout_capacitance( 10, 0.027);
fanout_resistance( 1, 0.01 );
fanout_resistance( 2, 0.015 );
fanout_resistance( 3, 0.022 );
fanout_resistance( 4, 0.026 );
fanout_resistance( 5, 0.030 );
fanout_resistance( 6, 0.035 );
fanout_resistance( 7, 0.039 );
fanout_resistance( 8, 0.048 );
fanout_resistance( 9, 0.057 );
fanout_resistance( 10, 0.06 );
fanout_area( 1, 0.11 );
fanout_area( 20, 2.20 );
}
Here 
Area, Resistance and Capacitance are in per unit length of the interconnect.
The slope is the extrapolation slop to be used for data points that are not specified in the fanout length table.
In general, not all fanouts are mentioned in a given WLM lookup table. For example, in above WLM1 and WLM2 lookup table, capacitance and resistance values for fanouts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10 is given. If we want to estimate the values at fanouts in the gaps (e.g. from 6) or outside the fanout range specified in the table (e.g Fanout 20), we have to calculated those value using (linear) interpolation and extrapolation.
For WLM1
For Fanout=20
Since its more than the max value of Fanout available in table (i.e 10) , so we have to perform extrapolation.
Net length = <length of net at fanout 10> + (2010) x Slope
Resistance = <new calculated Net length at fanout 6> x Resistance or Capacitance value per unit length
Capacitance = <new calculated Net length at fanout 6> x Capacitance value per unit length
Net length = 0.040 + 10 x 1.5 (slope) = 15.04 > length of net with fanout of 20
Resistance = 15.04 x 0.0006 = 0.009024 units
Capacitance = 15.04 x 0.0001 = 0.001504 units
For Fanout=6
Since it’s between 5 and 7 and corresponding fanout Vs length is available, we can do the interpolation.
Net length = ( (net length at fanout 5) + (net length at fanout 7) ) / 2
Resistance = <new calculated Net length at fanout 20> x Resistance value per unit length
Capacitance = <new calculated Net length at fanout 20> x Capacitance value per unit length
Net length = (0.0020 + 0.0028)/2=0.0048/2=0.0024 > length of net with fanout of 6
Resistance = 0.0024 x 0.0006 = 0.00000144 units
Capacitance = 0.0024 x 0.0001 = 0.00000024 units
In the similar way we can calculate the WLM for any no of fanout value.
WLMs are often used in preplacement optimization to drive speedups of critical paths. Since timingdriven placement plausibly makes nets on critical paths shorter than average, some optimism may be incorporated into the WLM. Thus, a WLM may actually consist of more than one lookup table, with each table corresponding to a different optimism level. There are several ways to incorporate the optimism level. If we use the WLMs that come from the (ASIC vendor’s) design library, usually there are several tables from which we can select. We can also increase the optimism level of a WLM by multiplying all values in the WLM by some factor less than 1.2 For example, we can use 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75.
WLM Types
For flows that run timingbased logic optimization before placement, there are three basic types of WLMs that can be used:
 Statistical WLMs
 Are based on averages over many similar designs using the same or similar physical libraries.
 Structural WLMs
 Use information about neighboring nets, rather than just fanout and module size information.
 Custom WLMs
 Are based on the current design after placement and routing, but before the current iteration of preplacement synthesis.
Now the Question is: Where do the wire load models come from?
Normally the semiconductor vendors will develop the models.
ASIC vendors typically develop wireload models based on statistical information taken from a variety of example designs. For all the nets with a particular fanout, the number of nets with a given capacitance is plotted as a histogram. A single capacitance value is picked to represent this fanout value in the wireload model. If a very conservative wireload model is desired, the 90% decile might be picked (i.e. 90% of the nets in the sample have a capacitance smaller than that value).
In this example 90% of nets have a capacitance smaller then 0.198pf. So in the WLM table, you will notice that fanout_capacitance( 3, 0.198 ).
Similar statistics are gathered for resistance and net area.
Usually the vendor supplies a family of wireload models, each to be used for a different size design. This is called areabased wireload selection
Few Advance concepts:
Till now we have discussed that for a particular Net you can estimate the RC value as per the WLM. Let me ask you one question. What if your design is hierarchical? Do you think even in that case you can use the same WLM for a particular net which is crossing the hierarchical boundaries? Short ANS is: you can use it but you will lose the accuracy.
Just to solve this problem, Vendors usually supplies multiple WLMs. There are different Modes for WLM analysis few important are:
WLM analysis has three modes:
 Top:
 Consider the design as it has no hierocracy and use the WLM for the top module to calculate delays for all modules.
 Any low level WLM is ignored.
 Enclosed:
 Use the WLM of the module which completely encloses the net to compute delay for that net.
 Segmented:
 If a net goes across several WLM, use the WLM that corresponds to that portion of the net which it encloses only.