Index | Chapter1 | Chapter2 | Chapter3 | Chapter4 |

Digital Background | Semiconductor Background | CMOS Processing |

1.1 | 1.2 | 1.3a | 1.3b | 1.4 | 1.5 | 1.6 |

Number System | Digital Arithmetic | Logic Gates | Logic Gates | Combinational Circuits | Multiplex (MUX) |

De-Multiplexer:

- Receives information on a single line and transmits that information on one of 2
^{n }possible output lines. - The selection of specific output line is controlled by the bit values of ‘n’ selection lines.

- Multiplexing means transmitting a large number of information units over a smaller number of channels lines.
- A digital multiplexer is a combinational circuit that selects binary information from one of many inputs lines and directs it in a signal output line.
- The selection of a particular line is controlled by a set of selection lines.
- Normally, there are 2
^{n}input lines and ‘n’ selection lines whose bit combinations determine which input is selected.” - Multiplexers can be used for the implementation of Boolean functions, combinational circuits. They can also used for parallel to serial conversion.
- Multiplexer is also called data selector or universal circuit.
- It is used for connection two or more sources to a single destination among computer units and it is useful for constructing a common bus system

**Important Points:**

To implement 2

^{n }:1 MUX by using 2:1 MUX, the total number or 2:1 MUX required is 2^{n}-1Given MUX | To be implemented MUX | Required No of MUX |

4 : 1 | 16 : 1 | 4+1=5 |

4 : 1 | 64 : 1 | 16+4+1=21 |

8 : 1 | 64 : 1 | 8+1 =9 |

8 : 1 | 256 : 1 | 32+4+1=37 |

__Implementation of Higher Order MUX using Lower Order MUX:__

4:1 MUX by 2:1 MUX

Total number of 2: 1 MUX = 3

**MUX as a universal logic gate**

Gate Type | Implemented by MUX + Equation |

Buffer | Y=output = A |

NOT/Inverter | Y=A’ |

AND | Y=A.B |

OR | Y=A+B |

NOR | Y=(A+B)’ |

NAND | Y=(A.B)’ |

XOR | |

XNOR |

__Implementation of Boolean function using Multiplexer:__

The Boolean function may be implemented in 2

^{n}to 1 multiplexer.- If we have a Boolean function of n variables, we take n-1 of these variables and connect them to the selection lines of a multiplexer (let’s say these are “select variables”).
- The remaining single variable (MSB variable) of the function is used for the inputs of the multiplexer (let’s say these are “input variable”).
- Now form the implementation table
- First row lists all those minterms where “input variable” is complemented (say 0).
- Second row lists all those minterms where “input variable” is in its normal form (say 1).
- The minterms are circled as per the given Boolean function. Now use the following steps to find out final multiplexer inputs.
- If the 2 minterms in a column are not circled, 0 is placed to the corresponding multiplexer inputs.
- If the 2 minterms in a column are circled, 1 is placed to the corresponding multiplexer inputs.
- If the minterms in the second row is circled and the first row is not circled, apply second row of variable to the corresponding multiplexer inputs.
- If the minterms in the first row is circled and not the second row, apply first row of the variable to the corresponding multiplexer inputs.

**Example:**Implementation of given function using 8 to 1 multiplexer

F(A,B,C,D) = Æ© (1,3,4,11,12,13,14,15)

**Solution.**

- Total number of variable n = 4 (A,B,C,D)
- Number of select lines: n-1= 3 (B, C, D)
- The given function has 4 variable, so 16 possible minterms (0 – 15) are entered in the implementation table.
- All the minterms are divided into 2 groups
- The first group (0-7) minterms are entered in the first row (Variable A =0)
- The second group (8–15) minterms are entered in the second row (Variable A= 1)
- Circle the minterm number as per function, which you have to implement (in this case it’s 1,3,4,11,12,13,14,15)
- Find out the multiplexer input as per above given steps.

Implementation Table

Given multiplexer is 8:1

**Logic diagram**

**Example**

Implement the following Boolean function using 8 : 1 MUX

F(A,B,C,D) = Æ© m(0,1,2,4,6,9,12,14)

**Solution.**

Select lines are B, C and D

Follow all the steps as per above points.

**Example**

Implement the following Boolean function with 8 : 1 multiplexer

F(A,B,C,D) = ∏M (0,3,5,6,8,9,10,12,14)

**Solution**

The given maxterms are inverted to obtain minterms. From the minterms, we can implement the above Boolean function by using 8 : 1 multiplexer. Select lines are B, C and D, the input variable is A.

F(A,B,C,D) = Æ© m(1,2,4,7,11,13,15)

**Example**

Implement the following Boolean function with 8 : 1 multiplexer

F(A,B,C,D) = Æ© m (0,2,6,10,11,12,13) + Æ© d(3,8,14)

**Solution.**

The Boolean function has three don’t care conditions which can be treated as either 0’s or 1’s. In this example don’t care condition is consider as 1.

Very good explaination

ReplyDeletevery helpful..are you going to post remaining concepts of digital designing

ReplyDeleteYes I will do. but it will take some time.

DeleteHow many 16:1mux required for 64:1 mux

ReplyDeleteSomeone gave me answer as 4 -64/16= 4

ReplyDeleteAnd some as 5- 64/16=4+1(for next one)=5

So which one is correct 5 or 4

if you can't use anyother gate.. like AND, OR, XOR .. then 5 is correct. but in case you can use any such basic gates - then 4 is correct answer.

DeleteIs any mathematical formula to make 64:1 mux by using 4:1 mux???

ReplyDeleteYou can use the formula

Delete(4/4)+(16/4)+(64/4)=21

Just go on multiplying by 4 for any gate but using 4:1 mux

Yes...divide the required MUX design with the available MUX and if NO additional gates are not given add "+1" to the previous divided value.(so always it is odd number only)

ReplyDeleteExample:To design the 64:1 MUX...you need 17 4:1 MUX

Well said !!!!!! Really useful

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This artical is posted right when I finished my postgraduate study in 2014. Quite late to know about this. But still useful.

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ReplyDeleteYour article is awesome! How long does it take to complete this article? I have read through other blogs, but they are cumbersome and confusing. I hope you continue to have such quality articles to share with everyone! I believe there will be many people who share my views when they read this article from you!

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ReplyDeleteHow to implement y=A+B+C, using 2:1 mux

ReplyDeleteThis is a great article, that I really enjoyed reading. Thanks for sharing.

ReplyDeleteIf the no. Of minterms is more than 2 how to implement in 2*1 mux

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ReplyDelete