## Index

 STA & SI Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3 Chapter4 Chapter5 Chapter6 Chapter7 Chapter8 Introduction Static Timing Analysis Clock Advance STA Signal Integrity EDA Tools Timing Models Other Topics

 Extraction & DFM Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3 Chapter4 Chapter5 Chapter6 Introduction Parasitic Interconnect Corner (RC Corner) Manufacturing Effects and Their Modeling Dielectric Layer Process Variation Other Topic

## 5 Steps to Build Career in VLSI

So many questions on the topic “How to Build Career in VLSI/Semiconductor Industry” ! So, I am composing 5 Steps to build career in this field. It's based on my experience.

Step No 1: Concept building + Basic knowledge Building:

Concepts/Basics are most important for this field. If you are from Electronics background or From Computer Background, then you should have in-depth understanding of the following topics. Note: Few topics are not required for CS students and same for Electronics students.
• CMOS Design + functionality + characteristics  (Electronic –Must have, CS – Good to have)
• Still in several colleges BJT taught in detail and only a small unit regarding the CMOS, so if that’s the case, please pick few good books for basic understanding of CMOS + read different articles from Internet.
• CMOS design
• Different CMOS capacitance + Resistance Concepts
• Stick diagram
• Fabrication process
• Flip-flops  (Electronics – Must Have , CS – Should Have)
• Flips-flops are part of Digital Design in the B.E but these are basic building block of any VLSI design. So we have to be more clear and through about this topic.
• Functionality of Edge and Level Triggered Flip-flop/Latches
• Timing Concepts in case of Flip-flops + Sequential Circuits  (Electronic –Must have, CS – Good to have)
• Setup/Hold/Recovery/Removal concepts
• Different Clock related concepts
• Slew
• Combinational Circuits Concepts: (Electronics + CS – Must have)
• Delay Concepts (Different type of Delays)
• Propagation Delay /Transition Delay
• Cell Delay /Net Delay/Stage Delay etc
• Building different Combinational circuits using different type of GATES.
• Programming / Scripting Knowledge (Electronics – Good to have, CS – Must have)
• VHDL/Verilog
• These are 2 of the few known languages. Knowledge of these can help you in front-end side of VLSI.
• But these are not necessary but it can be an added advantage.
• Perl/TCL scripting
• These are scripting language which is very popular in the Semiconductor industry.
• These are always an added advantage.
• UNIX based different scripting knowledge.
• Like SH, BASH or etc, always help you.
• C/C++ programming (Electronics – Good to have, CS – Must have)
• This will help you to enter in the development of EDA tools. Few people don’t consider this as VLSI industry, but for me, we can’t separate EDA from VLSI.
• C/C++ programming along with good understanding in Digital Domain is very good combination from skill point of view

Step No 2: Short Term Courses / Certification During or After the Engineering Degree.

It is very well know way in the Software field. During the study, students learn different programming languages and complete few of the Short term courses for increasing their knowledge which is not present or briefly covered in the college curriculum. Same pattern we can apply for the Semiconductor field.
I agree that there are very few institutes in the market which conducted such type of courses and if there are any, they are 2 costly. But still sometime it’s worth.
If you are looking for something while studying then maybe you should not worried about the certificate, always knowledge speaks more then certificates. Certificates may help you during the screening of your profile (Note: Even this is not necessary) but knowledge is something which can help you to crack any interview or written test. So if you can get the knowledge somehow from your senior’s experience + books + internet, then it’s the cheapest and best way. :)
If you have time and money, you can join any good institute. Usually most of the institutes offer a certificate course of full time 6-8 months and for that they usually conduct entrance exams. These institutes also assist in the placements in different companies.
2 of the Indian well known Institutes are:

Step No 3: Master Degree from Reputed College/Universities

I am considering/assuming that the candidates already have an Engineering Degree and they have tried STEP no 1 and 2 (partially). (Note: You can try this option even before trying for 1st and 2nd option but my recommendation to follow mentioned sequence). You can go for VLSI specialized MS/Mtech program. Different Universities are offering such courses, so candidate can try for that also.
Again, during the Master degree, you have to build your concepts and now you have to learn VLSI design flow. Work on the different EDA tools + VLSI concepts. Few of them are
• EDA tools:
• Frontend Tools + Language: Verilog/VHDL, HSPICE, Netlist Simulator, Design Compiler
• Backend Tools: Synopsys (ICC, Primetime , Starrcxt), Cadence (Encounter, QRC), Mentor (Caliber)
• VLSI concepts:
• RTL synthesis
• Layout, Routing , Timing , CTS, Placement

If you are doing any specialized master program then you have to make sure that either your internship or Final semester project should be related to VLSI design where you design a particular circuit from scratch. It will be your main project which can play an important role in your interview. It will be count as your experience and everyone is going to ask the challenges and learning during this project. So it should be real and worth for the master’s program.
Few of the Indian Universities are:

For most of these universities, you have to clear their specific entrance tests and some time interview also. In the entrance test, basically they will check your basics and knowledge.
These universities also assist in the placements in different companies.

Step No 4: Internship / Project Trainee.

It’s not required that you always look for full time jobs especially in this field. Several companies hire candidates as “Intern/Project Trainee” for 6 month / 1 year to evaluate the candidate’s skills and his/her problem solving skills. I would say that’s the best way to show them how worth are you for the company!
Even if they will not convert you into full time employee, the experience you gain on the live project (which you will handle during your internship), will help you in other company’s interview.

Step No 5: Keep Trying and Keep Patience.

I am not writing too much in this section because it’s self explanatory. But Frankly speaking, Because of “Step No 5” – I am here writing this post. And still I am following this step.

Final “Key Words” from the Author:
Sometime, even after following above mentioned steps, students may not get entry into the VLSI field. I would say “no need of worry”. Always try to figure out the reason of failure in each step and try to full fill them and make them your strength. I never come across to any person, who has knowledge + Brand Name + Passion + Dedication + focused and still out of his/her dream field. As per my understanding below are the % distributions of failure.
• 50% of the time – They (candidates) are lacking in the basics and fundamentals,
• 30% of time – They don’t have favorable  attitude ( usually judged by their seriousness in their different projects + past experiences + their passion + dedication)
• 10% of time – Not having Good/Known Brand Name (College / Universities Name).
• 10% of time – “Give Up” because of struggle/challenges you are facing.

I am not saying it’s very easy to enter in this field but believe me it’s not difficult also. Just follow above steps (where the first step is more important) and keep trying and keep patience.

Best of Luck for everyone’s bright future…

#### 32 comments:

1. A excellent post for aspiring electronic graduates of how to enter into vlsi field !

1. Good.I have basic knowledge& I don't know about this course.but I'm interested in core jobs,could you plz tell me which domain is best& provided high salaries

2. Thank you for guiding us in VLSI field

3. It's very elaborated explanation. Appreciated !!!

4. verry inspiring , thank you

5. very true or i should say the the all experience summarizes in words......
thank you ....................

6. Really great article, I wish I had come across this article 3 years ago. But still it's never too late...

7. Please suggest good books for learning basics of vlsi

8. Actually I was confused where to start with but after reading this post I got some clarity and decided to brush up my basics. Please do suggest good books or sites for improving basics

9. i feel more confidence after read this post. thanks you so much!!

10. Veda iit is also one of the institute which provides entry level jobs by giving proper training. you need not pay anything for training if you are qualified in the entrance test.

11. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

12. very clearly explained

13. Is rv-vlsi a good institute to learn?

14. Very good post, i just come across this today. This is what one fresher should know before entering VLSI. The most important is STEP-5. Always try to keep that fire of learning burning inside u.

15. As i am Instrumentation & Control engineer i was worried about this field but this post really helped me in discovering my weakness and boosting my confidence..
Thank you so much for such wonderful post!!

16. Great.... excellent explanation & good understanding.................

17. This post is very useful for us. Because we have a lot of
tips and tricks from this post. Thank you for this amazing post share. I many
tips about bd career as well. If you want to know more about a career sites, please visit our website.

www.bd-career.com

18. Don't try for vlsi job,never ever ,(go for embedded system).unless
1-you have strong reference
2- degree from IIT (even if IIT student are also lacking of proper skill, so company now a days not preferring IITian for vlsi job)
3-you do specialization course because company prefer to recruit from mostly training vlsi centre
4-Dont obsessed with vlsi job....If you are not getting,just give up as soon as posssible and look for ultimate....
5-better go for Fabrication side,if interesed in PHD....

19. Well illustrated and have gone into most of the issues

20. Thank you sir for your valuable information about vlsi field.
will you please give me the details of company's giving interships.
My mail id "sateeshjasti441@gmail.com".

21. Thank You Sir, information you provided is quite useful. But i have a doubt i am recently graduated. I am interested in VLSI field but I dont have access to most of these big soft wares developed by Synopsis,mentor,cadance etc. Primarily because they are very costly. Most of the time i have seen that knowledge of these softwares is essential to get into VLSI field. Can u suggest me How to overcome this problem???

1. If you are a fresher - then concepts matters a lot. Tool knowledge is optional.

22. Computer programming means working with code, a variety of programs, and your intelligence. Any related area offers \$77,550 as an annual revenue. Have a look at career for computer science to find more information.

23. One of the good institute Maven Silicon Banglore.They are providing sound technical knowledge in VLSI verification domain.

24. You seriously don't know that how brilliantly you summarize this very large field by its name in just so many words!!
Thank a lot for this !!!

25. Good career planning is very important for achieved the career target

job career changing

26. Thank you sir for giving good career planning

27. thank you for elaborated explanation