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Sunday, October 8, 2017

Physical Design Interview Questions (Part 1)


There are few sets of questions which is very common from Physical Design Interview point of view.
One of my Student shared below questions with me and as I always do - Sharing with everyone. :)

Note: Not mentioning the Answer of these questions right now. But I will do that later on. If anyone of you can do this for me or others (in lesser time compare to my time)- that will be great. I will explain these Answers one by one in detail fashion, so obviously it will take time. :)

First Set of Questions (Asked in One Company)
  1. Draw APR Flow
  2. When we will place "Physical Only Cells"
  3. What are "Spare Cells" and why it is used?
  4. Why do you make clock as Ideal during floorplan & Placement Stage?
  5. What are the different Checks we do in the CTS stage?
  6. What if Setup is failed after manufacturing of chip?
  7. How will you fix Hold?
  8. What is the Importance of useful Skew?
  9. What are DRV Checks and why do we check that?
  10. What is the cross talk? How it will effect the performance?
  11. Cross delay or Cross talk noise is note generally. Why?
  12. A Blocks having 7 Metal layers and same block having 10 metal layer, which will function better and why?
  13. How will you define the shape of the Die?

Other set of questions (Asked in Second Company)
  1. Draw and Explain APR flow.
  2. How will you place Macro?
  3. How will you reduce congestion near I/O parts?
  4. Where will you implement partial blockage?
  5. What are checks you will do after each stage of PNR?
  6. What is Setup and Hold Time?
  7. Few problem based on Setup and Hold Calculation.
  8. What are the Timing check will you do apart from setup and hold check?
  9. What if Setup and Hold Both fails?
  10. How will you resolve Setup and Hold Issues?
  11. What are clock free targets and buffer constraints?
  12. How will you fix DRV?
  13. How will you do cloning?
  14. Which metal will you use for Power routing and Why?
  15. What are routing grids?
  16. What is Antenna Effect and how will you resolve it?
  17. What is Antenna Ratio?
  18. What is Latch up and How will you resolve it?
  19. How will you place TAP Cells and in which Stage will you place Tap cells?
  20. Why ENDCAP Cells are used ?
  21. What all Datas will be given to FAB after Tapout?
  22. Why Derates are used for Timing Calculation? Is it Good or Bad?

I was thinking to list down Companies name here but then realized what if they stop asking these questions. :) :) But Point is these questions are very much related to concepts of whole PD flow. I am not saying that only these questions are sufficient for you to crack any PD (Physical Design) Interview, but I am 100% sure that these will help you to understand if your preparation is good enough and provide you certain direction in your preparation.

In case, you need my help to check whether you are ready for Interview or NOT, Please request for the MOCK Interview. We can connect and you are going to treat as Interviewee. After the MOCK interview, I will provide you detailed feedback.
Steps to request for MOCK Interview Sessions are below.
  1. Fill all details of this Form.
    Registration Form
  2. WhatsApp your NAME and Location at 9740033323.
  3. Book your 30min Slot
  4. After the Mock Interview - Get Detailed Feedback at your Mail id

BEST OF LUCK.


Monday, October 2, 2017

Delay Interview Question (Part1)


Let's discuss the Delay concepts from Interview point of view. Several times it happen that Interviewer is going to ask certain questions and the moment you answer it - they will change the case or scenario without changing the Diagram or values. Few of the scenarios, I am going to discussing here. Remember - As a Interviewer - our intension is to check "how much you know" and "How much you can visualize from Tool perspective or real design point of view".

Example 1:



All Buffer has same (min, max) delay = (0.1ns, 0.2ns)
All NOT Gate has same (min, max) delay = (0.25ns, 1ns)
AND gate (min, max) delay = (1.25ns, 1.5ns)
OR gate (min, max) delay = (0.3ns, 0.4ns)

Note: These min and max delay numbers are not corresponding to rise and fall delay number.

Question: Find out the Minimum and Maximum Delay between Q1 and D2?

Explanation:
This question is very easy. You have to understand only 1 thing, There are 2 paths and question is all about min and max delay between Q1 and D2.So, you have to calculate both min and max delay with respect to both the paths and then figure out which one is minimum or maximum out of 4 delay values.

Solution:
Path 1 (Min Delay) : 0.25 + 1.25 + 0.1 + 0.3 + 0.1 = 2ns
Path 1 (Max Delay) : 1.0 + 1.5 + 0.2 + 0.4 + 0.2 = 3.3ns

Path 2 (Min Delay) : 0.25 + 0.25 + 0.25 + 0.3 + 0.1 = 1.15 ns
Path 2 (Max Delay) : 1.0 + 1.0 + 1.0 + 0.4 + 0.2 = 3.6 ns

Overall Min Delay between Q1 and D2 = 1.15ns (From Path 2)
Overall Max Delay between Q1 and D2 = 3.6ns (From Path 2)


Example 2:



All Buffer has same (min, max) delay = (0.1ns, 0.2ns)
All NOT Gate has same (min, max) delay = (0.25ns, 1ns)
AND gate (min, max) delay = (1.25ns, 1.5ns)
OR gate (min, max) delay = (0.3ns, 0.4ns)

Note: These min and max delay numbers are corresponding to rise and fall delay number respectively.

Question: Find out the Minimum and Maximum Delay between Q1 and D2?

Explanation:
Now this question become tricky. As per Note - I have mentioned that these min and max delays are actually rise and fall delay. If this is the scenario, we have to understand circuit and find out more accurate Min and Max delay between Q1 and D2. Remember, above numbers (Min and Max delay in Example 1) is also correct but we are talking about more accurate number. This is the only trick or say the intension of Interviewer to ask you this question with slightly change in wordings. :)

We have to do 2 type of analysis for each path - Rising & Falling signal analysis at D1 for both paths.

Rising Signal Analysis (For Path1):
  • Inverter is Negative Unate -> Rising Signal at input means falling signal at output -> Means Fall delay is going to be consider for NOT gate => 1ns
  • AND gate is Positive Unate -> Falling signal at input means falling signal at output -> Means Fall delay is going to be consider for AND gate => 1.5ns
  • Buffer is Positive Unate -> Falling signal at input means falling signal at output -> Means Fall delay is going to be consider for Buffer gate => 0.2ns
  • OR is Positive Unate -> Falling signal at input means falling signal at output -> Means Fall delay is going to be consider for OR gate => 0.4ns
  • Buffer is Positive Unate -> Falling signal at input means falling signal at output -> Means Fall delay is going to be consider for Buffer gate => 0.2ns
So, overall for Path 1: For Rising Signal Analysis -> Delay = 1 + 1.5 + 0.2 + 0.4 + 0.2 = 3.3ns

Falling Signal Analysis (For Path1):
  • Inverter is Negative Unate -> Falling Signal at input means rising signal at output -> Means Rise delay is going to be consider for NOT gate => 0.25ns
  • AND gate is Positive Unate -> Rising signal at input means rising signal at output -> Means Rise delay is going to be consider for AND gate => 1.25ns
  • Buffer is Positive Unate -> Rising signal at input means rising signal at output -> Means Rise delay is going to be consider for Buffer gate => 0.1ns
  • OR is Positive Unate -> Rising signal at input means rising signal at output -> Means Rise delay is going to be consider for OR gate => 0.3ns
  • Buffer is Positive Unate -> Rising signal at input means rising signal at output -> Means Rise delay is going to be consider for Buffer gate => 0.1ns
So, overall for Path 1: For Rising Signal Analysis -> Delay = 0.25 + 1.25 + 0.1 + 0.3 + 0.1 = 2.0ns

Rising Signal Analysis (For Path2):
  • Inverter is Negative Unate -> Rising Signal at input means falling signal at output -> Means Fall delay is going to be consider for NOT gate => 1ns
  • Inverter is Negative Unate -> Falling signal at input means rising signal at output -> Means Rise delay is going to be consider for NOT gate => 0.25ns
  • Inverter is Negative Unate -> Rising signal at input means falling signal at output -> Means Fall delay is going to be consider for NOT gate => 1ns
  • OR is Positive Unate -> Falling signal at input means falling signal at output -> Means Fall delay is going to be consider for OR gate => 0.4ns
  • Buffer is Positive Unate -> Falling signal at input means falling signal at output -> Means Fall delay is going to be consider for Buffer gate => 0.2ns
So, overall for Path 1: For Rising Signal Analysis -> Delay = 1 + 0.25 + 1 + 0.4 + 0.2 = 2.85ns

Falling Signal Analysis (For Path2):
  • Inverter is Negative Unate -> Falling Signal at input means rising signal at output -> Means Rise delay is going to be consider for NOT gate => 0.25ns
  • Inverter is Negative Unate -> Rising signal at input means falling signal at output -> Means Fall delay is going to be consider for NOT gate => 1ns
  • Inverter is Negative Unate -> Falling signal at input means rising signal at output -> Means Rise delay is going to be consider for NOT gate => 0.25ns
  • OR is Positive Unate -> Rising signal at input means rising signal at output -> Means Rise delay is going to be consider for OR gate => 0.3ns
  • Buffer is Positive Unate -> Rising signal at input means rising signal at output -> Means Rise delay is going to be consider for Buffer gate => 0.1ns
So, overall for Path 1: For Rising Signal Analysis -> Delay = 0.25 + 1.0 + 0.25 + 0.3 + 0.1 = 1.9ns

Solution:
Path 1 (Min Delay) : 2ns (Because of Falling Signal Analysis)
Path 1 (Max Delay) : 3.3ns (Because of Rise Signal Analysis)

Path 2 (Min Delay) : 1.9ns (Because of Falling Signal Analysis)
Path 2 (Max Delay) : 2.85ns (Because of Rise Signal Analysis)

Overall Min Delay between Q1 and D2 = 1.9ns (From Path 2 - Falling Signal Analysis)
Overall Max Delay between Q1 and D2 = 3.3ns (From Path 1 - Rise Signal Analysis)



Do you think that's all .. NO NO NO .. Still there are couple of scenario which can be asked using same figure. Always remember - Interviewer never stop like this. :) :) Stay Tune for Next Article of this series.

Monday, September 18, 2017

Mantra For Success: Open to gain new knowledge (True Story of VLSI Aspirant)


After a long time, I came across to one of my student who compromised a lot, struggled a lot but finally learned a lot. His attitude of learning new concepts, believe in himself and his fighting sprit against odd scenarios - helped him to open doors of success.

I requested him to share his story and he did a awesome job.
I wish him BEST of LUCK for his future.

EVERYONE Should read HIS Story once (Whether you are VLSI aspirant or not - it doesn't matter). It will motivate you a lot.


My journey to get a job in ASIC RTL Design

After completing my masters from one of the most reputed universities in western Europe, I thought that when I get back to India, getting a job will be cake walk. There were some reasons why I couldn't stay back in Europe. I was highly excited to come back to India. My energy levels were all time high and I was very optimistic. Only to later realize that I stepped onto a road full of thorns.

It was December of 2015, I landed in Delhi, breathed with relief that I got back to my country. I was happy to begin a new journey of life. Everyone at home was very happy. After a short vacation, I started to look for a job. My days were fully consumed in job applications. Uncountable mails, relentless search on job portals , phone calls and LinkedIn search became a way of like for the next three months. Parents had high expectations, though they never expressed directly to me, but their eyes spoke of everything.

As days passed, my anxiety increased only to further invite health issues. In all these days, I gained about 15 kg of weight only to become obese. That was not enough, I started suffering from insomnia. Being unable to sleep for nights, I was unable to do any work in the morning, to become further lazy. I can remember an incident of one night, it was 4 o'clock, everyone was sound asleep at home except for me. Being unable to sleep, I started walking in the dining area and a sudden frustration wrecked into my mind. I started banging my head against the wall and started crying out loudly. Everyone woke up in a shock to see my state. I think, that day my parents realized that I need some help and some immediate attention. The next few days, I focused on improving my health and went for therapy to cure insomnia. I started working out. I saw good results. I was better than before. Later I decided that I will leave for Bangalore.

It was mid of March 2016 when I joined a known institute in Bangalore to get trained in RTL Design and Verification. The institute promised a 100% job assistance. I was happy that I have moved on. The next four months were consumed in the training. Though I did not typically required such a training, but getting a job was my hope. In my training days, I realized that my only interest is in RTL Design and not RTL verification. People suggested to me that I should first enter the industry and then have such strict criteria. But I did not budge. After four months of training, I started my job applications on my own as the training institute was not able to get a Design position.

I was living alone in a one room and a kitchen apartment in Bangalore. During the training, I did not realize my loneliness, but as it ended, I realized how alone I am. I used to study for all of day, also applying to positions. Initially I got some interview calls, but they went unsuccessful. Later I stopped receiving any further interview calls. No replies from HRs added further to my anxiety. I started contacting people on LinkedIn, but rarely would anyone reply. Expecting any reply from HRs was anyways hopeless.

But somehow god gave me strength to keep moving. I utilized my time to polish my skills. I solved Charles Roth completely, and other books as well. Even though I was working very hard, at nights while going to bed I used to feel sheer nervousness. My hands would shiver out of fear and nervousness. Seven months had passed and I was still jobless. Then a friend called me and said that I should start focusing on Verification and start revising SV, UVM etc. because getting a job in Verification is easier. I thought that it is the right way to go forward and I started doing it, loosing all hopes that I will get a job in RTL Design. It was third week of February of 2017 that I got a call from a service based company in NCR that they want to schedule an interview for RTL Design position with me. My happiness knew no bounds because it was my first interview after a couple of months. I gave the interview and I got selected!

I cannot express how happy everyone was. I couldn't believe that I made it. I soon joined that company. I met new people and made new friends. It was there where I realized that why my CV was not being shortlisted. I also lacked knowledge in STA. I got to know how to prepare CV for RTL Design position. I made mistakes, my approach was wrong, but my hard work paid off.

I got the chance to get lectures from Puneet sir on STA in Noida. Those lectures made me an expert in STA analysis. I was working very hard in the company as well, polishing all my skills and upgrading them. I learnt to operate Cadence tools. It significantly improved my profile. After six months in that company, I got selected in a very well known semiconductor company in Bangalore. I have just completed my first week in my new company. Now almost everyday I am getting a call from some company. Life seems so good now! I am fit, healthy and I sleep very sound. I am happier. Thanks to god, parents, friends and Puneet sir. I have made it.

I just want to say that never ever loose hopes. Stay strong and stay focused. Making friends is very important than anything else. Strong belief in god will help too. If you are not getting results,
  1. Please analyze where you are going wrong,
    • is it your approach ?
    • Or is it your level of knowledge that needs to be upgraded ?
  2. Always be open to any opportunity on the way even if it is low paying, because one door provides a gateway to a new world.
  3. Never think twice in gaining new knowledge. Go for as many workshops in your domain as possible.
  4. Talk to people if you are getting confused.
  5. And at last, be confident.

I have requested Puneet sir to keep my profile anonymous. But if you want some help from me, talk to Puneet sir, he will give you my contact details or message me on my mail id: rtldesignexpert@gmail.com. I would like to help anyone who is struggling to get a job in the semiconductor industry.

Thank you.

Once again - Best of Luck - A**k. :) Be in touch and ping me any time if you need my help.

Wednesday, April 12, 2017

Proper Assessment With detailed Feedback is missing for VLSI Candidates !


This article is mainly for VLSI aspirants, Evaluators or Developers (Assessment developer). "Assessment with detailed Feedback" is an indispensable factor missing in Education system related to Semiconductor/VLSI Industry. Assessment happens at every stage and everyone provide some type of feedback but effectiveness of both of these for VLSI industry is a topic of discussion here.

I try to highlight a common career path of a candidate before getting into job (it will help you to understand my point).

  1. Admission in XYZ Engineering college
  2. Scoring marks in different subjects like Digital electronics, VLSI Design, Microprocessor, Analog electronics, Semiconductor Theory and others
    • Remember: These scores or Marks are based on general or say all topics (not specific to any Industry)
  3. Campus Selection process.
    • Remember: In most colleges, either core companies (specially Semiconductor) don't visit or candidates don't able to meet selection criteria.
  4. If, not able to select or crack any VLSI Company interview, start thinking about other options.
  5. Other options are
    • Mtech (another 2 Year)
    • Training Institute (another 1 year and almost Rs 1Lakh)
  6. If, Opt for Mtech
    • Same process (as for Bachelor Degree: Step 2 to 4)
    • Even after Mtech, Most of the candidates again stuck at Step 4
    • Most of the Time, they opt for Training Institute.
  7. In case of Training Institute
    • Spend 1 more year
    • Spend money between Rs 50k to Rs 3lakh
    • Training Institute sometime offers you a job with a 3 year bond.

Assessment


Now it's time to understand what are different types and numbers of assessments in above career path. After that, we will discuss feedback mechanism.

Assessment Type:
  • B.Tech/B.E. External assessment:
    • Also known as Semester exam.
    • Structured to pass maximum students.
    • These assessments or say Exams are not based on any Industry.
    • These are common for all Industry.
  • B.Tech/B.E Internal assessment:
    • Also known as sessional or Internal exams
    • Specific to a particular topic but prime focus is to prepare students for Semesters.
    • Again, these are common for all industry
  • Entrance Exam (Competitive Exams):
    • Either for Mtech like GATE or for Training Institute.
    • Based on the maximum rejection. In general, Lakhs of students apply for such entrance exams and seats are limited. So maximum rejection is the criteria.
    • Again there are not specific to any Industry (even though people claim this)
  • M.Tech or M.E level assessment: Same as in case of B.Tech/B.E.(Maximum students should pass; No specific Industry oriented assessment)
  • Assessment during Training Program:
    • This is the one place, I can say it's specific to concepts and as per requirement. But nowadays it's also changing it's face.
    • Institutes promised for Job assistance or sometime 100% placement to various candidates. They can't place everyone because of N number of reasons, so they have to increase the level of assessment (difficulty wise) compare to Industry requirement. It helps them in screening candidates.
    • Institutes focuses on the practical aspect, so their assessment is also based as per that. They can't assess students for fundamentals and basics.

What's Missing here? Everyone know about these assessment technique. :) If you try to look more closely, you will find ...

  1. Not a single assessment is Industry Oriented.
  2. There are different purpose for each assessment, either rejection or selection or screening candidates.
  3. Based on these assessment techniques, no one can/should claim that "I am Industry Ready".


Now the point is "How to develop Industry Oriented Assessment". As per my understanding, assessment should have following features. In case, it's not fulfilling, assessment become general and can't claim it as Industry oriented.

  1. Industry requirement based:
    • Understand the Industry requirement
    • Understand each and every profile
    • Develop the assessment as per requirement and profile
    • Should not target 2 or more Industries at a time
    • It will be good, if it's developed by Industry person or thoroughly reviewed by them
  2. Coverage should be 100%:
    • Should cover all required topics and concepts.
    • Every concept is going to be used one day or other. Before applying for a job, candidates should know their strong area. Same goes to hiring person also. They should also know the weak and strong area of a candidate.
    • No need to add unnecessary topics or concepts as a part of assessment (just to increase the length of assessment)
  3. Properly Linked with Feedback mechanism
    • Assessment should be linked with feedback mechanism.
    • If we want to improve the performance of a candidate through assessment, then assessment should be thorough and well planned. It should be very well documented and divided into sections, subsections and if required deeper level of hierarchy.
    • Should have all level of questions (easy to difficult). Remember ...
      • In the case of only difficult questions, assessment turns into rejection-based-assessment.
      • In the case of only easy questions, assessment turns into passing-based-assessment.
    • If we want to select or reject based on assessment, it should be as per Industry requirement in terms of skill sets, concepts, knowledge or even level of questions.
      • Industry always want to know strength of a candidate, so that they can utilize their strengths for productive work.
      • Industry is also interested to know weakness of a candidate, so that they don't plug him/her in wrong project.
      • Remember, Industry never select based on Strength or reject based on Weakness. They select or reject based on match/mismatch of requirements Vs strengths.

Feedback


Feedback Mechanism:
  • After B.Tech/B.E External assessment:
    • Final Score (e.g B Grade or 75% Marks)
  • After B.Tech/B.E Internal assessment:
    • Score along with some remarks from Lecturer or Professor
  • Entrance Exam:
    • The only percentile or say merit list (comparative report)
  • During M.Tech/M.E:
    • Final Score (e.g B Grade or 75% Marks)
  • During Training Program:
    • Score along with remarks from Trainer or Certificate in the end

Nothing is unknown to anyone. If you see closely, few of these are not even in the category of feedback. They are part of evaluation system. But I am highlighting these as a part of feedback because there is no other system in our education (or say career path) apart of these few. You may not be able to understand my point. :) Let me first highlight the features of Ideal Feedback mechanism.

  • Detailed and Appropriate.
    • It should highlight the strength and weak area of candidate. (Just highlighting good and bad with the help of score is not a feedback)
    • General remarks and specific remarks are two different things.
    • It should be detailed enough to appropriately highlight all gaps.
  • What next?
    • Feedback should be in such a way that it give direction for Next step.
    • If I am not sure how to use this feedback, there is no point of such feedback.
  • Should be fast enough (Instant feedback is best). If you are getting feedback after few weeks or so, it loses impact.

When we are talking about VLSI Industry, instant, proper, specific feedback lacks bigtime. Think about a scenario where you get detailed feedback about your performance and also get a chance to improve on your weak areas. That will help big time before you claim to be Industry Ready.


Above figure explain about the effort Vs score in different feedback mechanism. This can help you to understand what I am talking about. If feedback is instant and to-the-point, there are chances that I can improve on my weak areas in runtime(less time). But if it takes time, I have to spend more effort, energy, time to work on provided feedback.

Let me share few figures/charts for detailed and appropriate feedback. I will also explain how to interpret these.


Feedback Type 1: Topic Wise Performance Chart
  • It helps you to identify how good you are in a particular topic.
  • Total questions Vs Correct Vs Wrong, all information is present in a single chart.
  • It will also help you to identify your weak concepts.
    • E.g. Designing a "Latch using Mux" Vs "Flip-flop using Mux" Vs "Circuit realization using MUX". All are related to MUX but these are different concepts.
    • If, I provide a feedback that "your MUX is not good", you have to study complete MUX from scratch.
    • but if, I highlight the statistic in above fashion, it helps you big time to focus on a particular concept within MUX.
  • It helps you to understand pre-requisite of VLSI Industry.
    • You may not give importance to "Flip-flop using MUX" but after such feedback you can realize the importance of this concept.
    • Also helps you in terms of weightage of different concepts from VLSI industry point of view.


Feedback Type 2: Section wise Performance Analysis
  • It helps you to identify how good you are in a particular section.
  • These sections help to identify the Job profile.
    • Like If your Timing concepts are good, you should choose STA profile.
    • Not performing in Analog Section, means not recommended for Analog Design profile.
    • If Programming skills are not good, avoid Frontend side
  • So, these section's statistic helps you to identify your focus area. And sometimes can recommend your career path also.
  • In this Analysis, there are 3 areas (Total questions, question attempted and correct answer).
    • You have attempted some questions - that means as per your understanding those are your strong areas.
    • But such analysis points out that something is missing in those areas also. It may be because of some silly mistakes, over confidence, lack of fundamental knowledge or something else.
  • Such report helps to understand the weightage of different sections in VLSI industry.
    • Helps in time management during revision.
    • Helps to identify the effort level for a particular section.


Feedback Type 3: Overall performance
  • It helps "how good you are in general".
  • It's equivalent to final score (41/100) but mentally it's impact is different.
  • If any employer see this report, they have the opportunity to see "how much is the correct % out of attempted one". :)
  • Sometime such report works as a mirror. There are possibilities that you are running behind something which is not your cup of Tea.:)


Feedback Type 4: Average Statistic
  • It helps a user to understand "how good or bad he/she is compared to other candidates".
  • 56% unattempted and if you are also in that category, means you are not unique. :). If, you learn these topic or concepts, you can be one step ahead of others.
  • Only 19% are able to solve correctly. If you are one of them, means you are on the right track.
  • Such data helps a candidate to know their current level of preparation compared to others.
  • It can also help you to visualize where you stand compare to others.

Proper Assessment & Detailed Feedback


I am sure, by now you are good and understand the Ideal Assessment and Feedback mechanism.

It's time to understand how we can integrate Assessment and Feedback in a very effective way.

Feedback and assessment both are interlinked. If we know what type of feedback analysis we have to do and of what level, only then we can prepare/develop a proper and effective Assessment. Let me summarize this article with some pointer which also answers our initial question What is "Proper Assessment with Detailed Feedback"?
  • For highlighting correct weightage of different topic/sections in VLSI field (using feedback mechanism), assessment can't have unnecessary questions.
    • Assessor or developer should have thorough knowledge about the VLSI Industry. Preference goes to Industry experts or someone who already worked in the Industry for several years.
    • Assessor or developer should know what are the perquisites of a specific profile of VLSI Industry.
    • Assessor or developer should have good understanding of different sections, subsections, topics, concepts. It's not just randomly select few questions related to different sections/topics.
  • Level of question should be as per Industry Standard
    • Assessment is not for rejecting candidates for XYZ factor. Assessment should aim to screen the right skilled candidate.
    • Difficult level should not be above the standard because it may filter out right candidates.
    • Difficult level should not be below the standard because it adds one more level of screening process.
  • Assessment and Feedback both should help candidates for improvement
    • Assessment for screening or filtering candidates are almost without any feedback
    • Assessment should be designed to first highlight improvement area and it's only possible with detailed feedback.
    • Feedback should be in such a way that "What Next" is clear. For that assessment should be designed in a very different way.

In the last, just wanted to add one thing... VLSI students are not able to understand the importance of assessment today, they think training and courses are sufficient for them to get a job. But Remember, if you don't know where you stand and how much you are capable, you can't get success in your life.

Courage is not the absence of fear, but rather the assessment that something else is more important that fear.

Franklin D Roosevelt

The newly launched product "VLSI Self Mentorship Program" by Edusaksham, can help you in assessment along with detailed Feedback. Do free login and try sample papers to know more.

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